EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF
REINFORCED CEMENT STRUCTURES
Doctor K. Muthumani
Chief Scientist & Head,
Advanced Seismic Testing and Research laboratory
CSIR-Structural Executive Researcg Centre
1 . zero INTRODUCTION
Earthquake Engineering as an independent discipline of research has developed within the last 50 years. The dense network of accelerograms in seismic areas, the developments in analyzing difficult structures in elastic and inelastic ranges using effective computers, the experimental ways of testing of structures and elements employing servo manipulated actuators and seismic simulators, refinement and extensive make use of in-situ computing techniques as well as the broadening expertise in soil-structure interaction effects have helped the development of this kind of relatively new discipline of architectural. The beliefs of seismic resistant design and style has changed their focus from a strength-based design to the energy-based design and style during the last twenty years and the designed structures must be in a position to absorb and desolve the kinetic energy imparted to that during an earthquake. The most up-to-date seismic resilient design comes after three directions 1 . Type of structures with members capable to dissipate significant amount of one's through steady cycles of inelastic deformation while preserving a limited volume of damage. installment payments on your Seismic isolation of structures, in tandem with dampers with a view to deflect the major regularity components of the input. three or more. Use of particular energy dissipating devices, to get limiting the level of damage sustained by the framework.
India contains a long and painful history of catastrophic seismic events. A lot more than 60% from the country can be vulnerable to solid earthquakes plus the major reason behind the seismic history of India is due to the movement of the Indian dish against the Cross plate and the rate is approximately 5cm/year, since claimed simply by geo-physicists. In addition there are major errors and evolution of new problems are recognized after every single major seismic event.
Stand вЂ“1 reveals the major seismic events in India and their magnitude, yr of happening and harm.
Desk 1 . Popular Indian Sub-Continent Earthquakes
Place| Year| Size in Richter's scale| LOGISTIK Intensity| Human being loss| Kutch | 1819| | | 1500
Assam| 1897| almost eight. 7| XII| 10000
Kangra(Punjab-Kashmir)| 1905| 8. 6| X| 19000| Bihar-Nepal| 1934| 8. 4| X| 10700
Quetta(Baluchistan)| 1935| several. 6| | 30000| Assam-Tibet| 1950| eight. 7| XII|
Koyna| 1967| 6th. 5| VIII| 200
Bihar-Nepal (Dharbanga)| 1988| 6. 6| | 1000| Uttarkashi| 1991| 6. 6| IX| 770
Latur| 1993| 6. 4| IX| 10000
Jabalpur| 1997| | |
Chamoli- Uttarkashi| 1999| | |
Bhuj-Kutch| 2001| | | 20000
2 . 0 METHOD OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS
The main earthquakes have predominant spectrum of ankle components and the vertical elements are 1 / 2 or even less than these horizontal components. Likewise, most of the buildings are flexible and essential under assortment loads and horizontal components assume very important importance compared to the vertical ones excepting in the matter of bridges. As per the linear structural dynamics theory, a entier system with small damping and afflicted by random loadings predominantly vibrates in its critical lateral setting. For example , total response of a 2% damped system underneath an earthquake is 90-95 % in the fundamental function and 5-10% in all the additional higher settings.
Stand 2 . Typical comparison of Blowing wind and Seismic Loadings
Characteristics| Wind| Earthquake
Frequency Range| zero. 05 to at least one. 0 Hz| 1 . zero to 10. 0 Hz| Loading Definition| Wind velocity Fourier extravagance or power spectrum (such Davenport as well as Kaimol etc)| Response spectrum of physical systems. | Response...
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installment payments on your " Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Tangible Structures Afflicted by Seismic Makes вЂ“ Code of PracticeвЂќ, Indian Regular code, IS-13920 -1993, BIS HIN ZU, New Delhi.
3. " Ductility of RC Flexural Members in Seismic Tolerant Design simply by Stirrup Stainlesss steel DetailingвЂќ, Lakshmanan, N., Sivarama Sarma, M., Srinivasa Rao, P., Earthquake Effects on Structures, Herb and Machinery, BHEL, New Delhi, mil novecentos e noventa e seis
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